A Chronology of Chinese-Americans
The number of Chinese in the United States as reported by the 1960 census reaches 237,292 (135,549 male, 101,743 female; about 60% native born). . More than one-half of the Chinese live in four cities: Honolulu, San Francisco, Oakland, and New York. From 1943, when all Chinese exclusion acts are repealed, to this year, 22,329 Chinese has become American citizens through naturalization. By the end of this year, Chinese newspapers have been reduced to eleven out of sixty-five foreign language dailies.
C. C. Li, professor of biometry and director of the Human Genetics Training Program at the University of Pittsburgh, is elected president of the American Society of Human Genetics.
Kung-chuan Hsiao, professor of Far Eastern studies at the University of Washington is awarded a special prize of $10,000. In awarding, the American Council of Learned Societies cites: "Professor K. C. Hsiao combines the best of two great scholarly traditions, those of China and the West."
James Wong Howe is complimented by Newsweek (January 11) as the finest movie cameraman in the world.
The total number of Chinese admitted to the United States from 1899 to 1961 is 119,480, according to a report released by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in February 1964.
The Office of Cultural Attache of the Chinese Embassy in Washington, D.C. reported that there are more than thirteen hundred Chinese on the faculties of eighty-eight American universities and colleges, some of whom hold administrative positions, such as deans and departmental chair men.
To relieve the refugee situation in Hongkong, President John F. Kennedy permits the entry into the United States of several thousand Chinese as parolees. Their total number eventually reaches over fifteen thousand by the end of 1965.
At age thirty-six, Wing Luke is elected to the Seattle City Council and becomes president pro tempore.
Chinese American Medical society is formed.
A distinguished biochemist, Dr. Choh-hao Li wins the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award, conferred on him by Mrs. Lyndon Johnson with an honorarium of $10,000.
Ju Chin Chu, professor of chemical engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, represents the United States at the NATO Conference on Propulsion.
Chinese Historical Society of America is formed.
During the period 1944-1964, over thirty-seven thousand Chinese in the United States complete their naturalization process to become American citizens.
Ieoh Ming Pei, one of the best architects in the West, is chosen by the Kennedy family above a selected group of internationally known architects to design the John Fritzgerald Kennedy Memorial Library. Pei has designed numerous buildings and received many awards and honors including a number of honorary doctoral degrees and the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Medal for Architecture.
Hiram L. Fong is re-elected to the United States Senate with an overwhelming majority against the Democratic landslide of President Lyndon B. Johnson.
The annual number of Chinese quota immigrants from 1954 to 1965 exceeds the apportioned figure except during 1964-1964.
Congress passes a new and more liberal immigration and nationality act on October 3 sweeping changes by abolishing national-origin quotas and establishing, on principle, a first-come-first-served basis. Country of origin is no longer based on nationality or race but on place of birth.
Chinese Culture Foundation of San Francisco is established.
After the liberalization of Chinese immigration consequent to the enactment of the 1965 act, there is a steady increase of Chinese immigrants to the United States, and many temporary visitors have readjusted their status to permanent residents. Up to the end of June of this year, the number of new arrivals totals 17,508 (including 3,872 from Hongkong), and 9,770 Chinese already in the United States on temporary basis obtained the statues of permanent residents.
Benefitted by federal grants for Chinese studies provided by the National Defense Educational Act, over 60 American institutions begin to offer degree programs in Chinese studies, with about 2,500 students. By the end of 1966, there are approximately 1,450 Chinese scholars of different specializations on the instructional staffs of different American universities and colleges.
William D. Soo Hoo is elected mayor of Oxnard, California, which has only sixty ethnic Chinese among a population of sixty-four thousand.
Gerald Tsai, Jr. surprises Wall Street in February, when he easily amasses $270 million of capital from 150,000 investors to found the Manhattan Fund, of which he becomes the president.
U.S.News and World Report (December 26) writes: "Visit 'Chinatown U.S.A.' and you find an important racial minority pulling itself up from hardship and discrimination to become a model of self-respect and achievement in today's America." Complimenting the Chinese low rate of crime, it further states that "in crime-ridden cities, Chinese districts turn up as islands of peace and stability."
Up to June 30, there are 25,096 Chinese coming to the United States this year, and as many as 11,069 Chinese already in the United States on temporary basis readjusted their status to permanent residents.
By the end of June, there are 16,434 Chinese coming to the United States, and 4,927 Chinese already in the United States Changed their status from temporary basis to permanent residents.
Up to June 30, there are 20,893 Chinese coming to the United States. Among those Chinese already in the United States on a temporary basis, 3,980 are able to adjust their status to paramount residents.
The immigration and nationality act of 1965 is amended on December 5, requiring a waiting period of thirty days for the issuance of any certificate of materialization after the filing of the petition for naturalization, unless the attorney general decides to waive such a period in certain cases.
A bilingual paper, Getting Together, is issued in February by I Wor Kuen in New York. This new organization, set up by a group of young Chinese in the preceding year, begins to challenge the authority of older establishments in Chinatown.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 is amended twice (April 7, July 10), concerning procedures for admitting aliens with special ability and those coming to the United States under government financed programs, as well as the conditions for depositing bonds. These provisions apply to all aliens, including the Chinese.
There are 17,956 Chinese coming to the United States by the end of June, and 5,899 Chinese already in the United States with status of permanent residency.
The 1970 census reveals the total number of Chinese in the United States as 435,062, an increase of 83.32% from the figure of the 1960 census. They are no longer concentrated on the West coast, even though California still has the highest number of 170,131. Next to California are New York State (81,378), Hawaii (52,039), Illinois (14,474), Massachusetts (14,012), Washington (9,201), New Jersey (9,233), Texas (7,635), Pennsylvania (7,053), Maryland (6,520), Michigan (6,407), and Ohio (5,305). According to the same census, Chinese constitute only one-fifth of one percent of the 1970 population in the United States. While the rate of intermarriage is up 63% in the last decade, the percentage of Chinese men marry to white wives is 8.3%.
Senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii is re-elected in November for a third term.
North American Chinese Earth Scientists Association is founded.
There are 17,622 Chinese coming to the United States by the end of June of this year, and 6,747
Chinese already in the United States with the statue of permanent residency. From the effective date of the 1965 immigration and nationality act to the middle of 1971, there are as many as 115,509 Chinese coming to the United States, with almost equal distribution between males and females. During the same period 42,392 Chinese already in the United States on temporary basis are able to readjust their status to permanent residents with the intention to become American citizens through naturalization.
Ethnic Chinese in American universities and colleges total 21,355 from the following places: Taiwan (9,210); Hongkong (9,040); Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines (3,105).
The University of Pennsylvania confers honorary degree of doctor of laws upon Yu-hsiu Ku, professor of electrical engineering (1952-1972) in recognition of his outstanding contributions to analysis of the transit behavior of a-c machines and systems.
The immigration and nationality act of 1965 is further amended on October 27, whereby a naturalized American citizen is required to comply with either of the following conditions in order to keep his nationality: (1) he comes to the United States and continues to stay for a period of no less than two years between the ages of fourteen years and twenty-eight year; or (2) the alien parent is naturalized while the child is under the age of eighteen years and the child begins to reside permanently in the United States while under the age of eighteen years (temporary absence from the United States of less than sixty days not considered as breaking the continuity of his physical presence). This provision applies to people of all ethnic origins.
The number of Chinese newspapers in New York City increase to six: The Chinese Journal, The United Journal, The China Tribune, The China Times, Sing Tao Jih Pao, and The China Post. There are four more Chinese dailies in San Francisco (The Young China and Chinese Times) and Honolulu (United Chinese Press and New Chinese Daily News).
Chinese Medical Health Association is founded.
Mrs. Anna Chennault, widow of General Claire Lee Chennault, is named to a three-year term on the Women's Advisory Committee of the Federal Aviation Administration. Mrs. Chennault has long been active in Republican politics, and is currently vice-president for international affairs of the Flying Tiger Line, an all cargo airline.
Gerald Tsai, Jr. resigns as president and chief executive of the Tsai Management & Research Corporation and its five mutual funds, including the Manhattan Fund.
The Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA) is established in the District of Columbia on June 9. A non-partisan coalition of many Chinese-Americans, it aims at helping solve various problems confronting the Chinese who have become either American citizens or permanent residents of the United States.
Over one thousand Americans and Chinese attend the dedication ceremony of the Sun Yat Sen Memorial Hall at St. John's University in New York on September 8.. The Hall named in honor of the founder of the Chinese Republic, houses the Center of Asian Studies, which is under the directorship of Paul K. T. Sih, professor of history and assistant to the president of the university.
Chinese American Librarians Association (formerly Mid-West Chinese American Librarians Association) is formed. Tze-chung Li is its first president.
Chien-hsiung Wu is elected President of the American Physicial Society
Chinese American Arts Council is formed.
Chinese American Food Society (formerly Association of Chinese food Scientists and Technologists in America) is created.
Ping-ti Ho is elected president of the Association of Asian Studies.
Francis Liang-Kwang Hsu is elected President-Elect of the American Anthropological Association
Chinese Accounting Professor Association -North America is founded.
Organization of Chinese American Women is formed.
Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Institute is founded.
Taiwan Benevolent Association of America is founded.